Did Michelangelo design the uniforms of the Vatican’s Swiss Guard? In short: no way

swiss guard

It’s a common belief that Michelangelo designed the uniforms of the Pontifical Swiss Guard. But, in fact, they are based on armor common throughout Renaissance Europe.

During the Renaissance, Swiss mercenary soldiers were considered among the best in Europe. When Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere became Pope Julius II in 1503, he asked the Tagsatzung to provide him with a guard. The Tagsatzung — a/k/a the Diet of Switzerland – was the governing body of Switzerland prior to formation of the Swiss federal state in 1848.

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Cagliostro and the Affair of the Diamond Necklace

cagliostro

Giuseppe Balsamo a/k/a Alessandro di Cagliostro

Alchemist, forger, quack, pimp – in the 18th century, the self-styled Count Alessandro di Cagliostro was all of these and more.  He might have been forgotten were it not for his alleged involvement in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace in 1785.  The event – involving the theft of an expensive diamond necklace by means of Marie Antoinette’s forged signature —  cast suspicion on the unpopular queen and may have contributed to the French Revolution.  Although Cagliostro was found innocent of any involvement in the crime, he nevertheless was held in the Bastille for nine months and eventually asked to leave France.

Cagliostro was most likely born Giuseppe Balsamo in Palermo, Sicily.  Although his family was poor, Balsamo had a tutor and eventually became a novice in the Catholic Order of St. John of God.  Before he was expelled, he learned chemistry as well as religious rites.

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